Man’s will has its proper place in the matter of salvation (Revelation 22:17). Nowhere. BibliographyEdwards, Justin. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/romans-9.html. As a natural man he was always a bargain-maker. The first thing, therefore, is to brush away the clouds of false opinions with which theological polemics have enveloped it. Malachi, as Genesis, refers to the nations. "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". A friend sets before us a certain truth in a new light, pleads with us, and our hearts are changed towards it. Romans 9 â Has God Rejected Israel? In confirmation of this, he refers to the case of Ishmael, who was rejected, and of all the other children of Abraham being passed over in silence, Isaac remaining the only seed to inherit and to entail the promise. There is not a prayer, nor any recognition of the fatherhood or the sovereignty of the Almighty. The vessels of the one description were the remnant which should be saved, the seed which the Lord of Sabbath had left, verses 27, 29. "That," Spurgeon replied, "is not my difficulty, madam. Generally by persuasion. At last he turns his back on the habitation of his fathers, and departs for ever from the land of promise. If the garrison surrendered while the white flag was up, their lives were spared; after that the black flag was run up, and every man was put to the sword. Nothing can more clearly manifest the strong opposition of the human mind to the doctrine of the Divine sovereignty, than the violence which human ingenuity has employed to wrest the expression, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. But, says one, “Esau repented.” Yes, but what sort of a repentance was it? Those who put their trust in Christ shall be pardoned. In reference to earthly, not heavenly privileges. "Commentary on Romans 9:13". Then what will be to the Jacobs? We go down into the sanctuary of a man’s real life. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-9.html. (J. Hamilton, D.D. My trouble is to understand how God could love Jacob! What, then, can be done? He confirms, by a still stronger testimony, how much the heavenly answer, given to Rebecca, availed to his present purpose, that is, that the spiritual condition of both was intimated by the dominion of Jacob and servitude of Esau, and also that Jacob obtained this favor through the kindness of God, and not through his own merit. When the crusaders heard Peter the hermit, they cried out at once, “Dens vult!” and every man plucked his sword from its scabbard, and set out to reach the holy sepulchre. 3. Numbers 23:7, Numbers 23:10, Numbers 23:23; Numbers 24:5; Jeremiah 49:10; compare also the original of the citation, Malachi 1:2, Malachi 1:3, the burden of the word of the Lord to Israel. The ladder resting on earth and reaching up to heaven had not been a mere dream, it was a revelation telling him that his communion with God would be established for ever. To apply these verses to the eternal salvation to two individuals doesn"t fit the context. And it lies entirely with God’s sovereignty to determine who shall be the recipients of His bounty. If Gods love to Jacob was real literal love, Gods hatred to Esau must be real literal hatred. 2. If Jacob, who was placed in the same situation proved himself to be a godly man, it was entirely owing to the distinguishing grace of God. 13. He bought what he might, probably, have taken by force. And Paul wishes to impress him with the fact that no amount of effort on that condition would save him. "Love" and "hate" are not here, then, emotions that God feels but actions that he carries out." “For He saith to Moses, I will,” etc. That this will not be the case, even they who oppose the sovereignty of God in the election of grace cannot deny. “I have no pleasure in the death of a sinner.” “Let the wicked forsake his way,” etc. You shall think you have but one mercy; but you shall find it to be a whole flock of mercies. In him we may see the truth of the words, ‘whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth’; the more precious the metal the more carefully is it refined. John Trapp Complete Commentary. I have loved and I have hated do not signify merely: I have preferred the one to the other; but: I have taken Jacob to be mine, while I have set aside Esau. My trouble is to understand how God could love Jacob!" And then, just as Israel personally represents, first, his natural seed, the Jews; and, second, the visible Jewish Church; and, third, his spiritual seed, by faith, Jew or Gentile, so does Esau represent, not only Edom external, but also the Edom spiritual, and reprobate by unfaith, whether descended from Esau or not, who, as such, are the just objects of divine hate. The aorists are, in the sense of the apostle—as the relation of καθὼς γέγρ. Is there unrighteousness with God? The repetitions are very emphatical, and import in the highest degree a resolvedness in God to dispense His favour according to His own pleasure, and not according to the thoughts of men. God is there reproving the people of Israel for their ingratitude, and manifesting His great goodness to them in loving their father Jacob, while He hated his brother Esau, and gave him a mountainous, barren country, as a sign of His hatred. Not very wrong with man, but never right with God. The wrath of God has been revealed from heaven against all unrighteousness and ungodliness of men. His success in deceiving his father had brought on him a lifelong train of bitter disappointments, but his failures and trials, in which he plainly discerned the hand of God, were now his source of comfort and satisfaction. 2. What shall we say then? I. Much is written pro and con upon this argument. The great controversy which has divided the Church upon the question of “the will” has been fraught with incalculable usefulness, for it has thrust forward the two great doctrines of human responsibility and Divine sovereignty. Look at Jacob’s life. One is born in a palace, while another draws his first breath in a hovel. And even when they are hearing the gospel the fact is God works in one heart when He does not in another. In innumerable passages of Scripture, God ascribes to Himself hatred. In maintaining, then, the doctrine of the sovereignty of God, it is by no means necessary to vindicate the conduct of Jacob towards his brother. He delights not to make His subjects slaves; exacts not of them any servile or fearful, but a generous and cheerful obedience. Do you murmur at God for it? The maxim of Augustine, “God does not choose us because we believe, but that we may believe,” is but half the truth. American Tract Society. The walls were rebuilt. Inconceivable. We are unable to discover them, but that He has the highest reasons for His conduct we are bound to believe. Mr. Hodge, Professor of Biblical Literature in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, America, gives here the following most erroneous interpretation: It is evident that in this case the word hate means to love less, to regard and treat with less favor. This false gloss completely destroys the import of the passage, on which no one who understands the doctrine of the fall, and consequent condemnation of all men in Adam, ought to feel the smallest difficulty. It means that God’s purpose in redemption is independent of man. He deceives his master and father-in-law, Laban, and runs away and outrages his feelings. Does not the passage above quoted, which declares that men are by nature children of wrath, express this hatred of sin in the strongest manner; and especially of Adams sin, on account of which all men are children of wrath by nature? Chastening is not a sign of wrath, but of love to those who will take it as such, who place themselves meekly and trustfully in God’s hands, and pray that He will do with them as He sees best. Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. But while God is thus absolute sovereign, this absolute sovereignty does not determine for Him what it is right that He should please to do. It might be thought that there was a natural reason for preferring the child of Sarah, as being Abraham's true and first wife, both to the child of Hagar, Sarah's maid, and to the children of Keturah, his second wife. All the rights of the firstborn were thus transferred to Jacob, and the inheritance of Canaan devolved on him by the surrender of his ungodly brother. He permitted him to become the father of princes, but He had not blessed his generation. It is essentially not Christian language. Esau, though deprived of the promise and the inheritance, nevertheless obtained a blessing and an inheritance for his descendants. The whole way through we are ashamed of Jacob; we cannot help it. Let us all remember the solemn lesson that ‘whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap,’ reap more or less here in this life, but reap fully and completely in the life to come. It is evident, therefore, that the Apostle means to assert that Jacob was counted for one of the spiritual seed, was a child of God, and that Esau, though one of the children of Abraham according to the flesh, was not a child of God, nor counted for the seed; and, moreover, that it was the election of God, and no merit or demerit of the parties, which made this difference between them. Then how is it with ourselves? https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/romans-9.html. Church Pulpit Commentary. There are few commentators, however, who have not wavered more or less in their explanation of this passage. ), Righteousness of the Divine administration, All the unutterable woes of the depraved residuums of our great cities are taking place under the administration of a God of kindness and love. Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament Romans 9:13. There is no mystery so glorious as the mystery of God’s love.” (N. T. Is there unrighteousness with God? 328.) 1765. Oh, Esau, it is in vain for thee to say, “I lost my birthright by decree.” God is not the author of sin. (C. H. The whole of the context throughout this ninth chapter, as well as the concluding part of the eighth, proves that respecting Jacob and Esau the reference is to their spiritual and eternal state. But if God had no just ground to hate Esau, He could have as little ground for slighting him. The two questions are entirely distinct, so one answer will not do for both. ", 3. Jacob wrestled with God, and had power over Him, and prevailed, Hosea 12:4,5. In reference to believers, he had spoken of Gods sovereignty as displaying itself in their election, and now, in reference to the great body Of the Jews, as manifested in their rejection. But the man says: “Do not stop here, go to the top floor of the factory, and you will see the idea fully carried out.” I do so, and having come to the top, see the complete pattern of an exquisite shawl. I have never yet met with a man even professing to be a Christian who ever said that his coming to God was the result of his unassisted nature. The doctrine of the preceding verses is, that God is perfectly sovereign in the distribution of his favors, that the ground of his selecting one and rejecting another is not their work, but his own good pleasure. "Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books". (T. De Witt Talmage. The Scriptures must be explained in a forced manner; and while they say that God hates sinners, they are made to say that He does not hate them. This doctrine of the election of some and the rejection of others was also illustrated in Abraham, an idolater, and in the nation of Israel, to whom God showed His word, while He left all other nations to walk in their own ways. His assertion of the freedom of God might be used to impeach His moral character. Because opposed to all our notions of Divine perfection, whether derived from revelation, conscience, or reason. Malachi 1:2,3. III. The passage in Malachi, from which these words, Esau have I hated, are quoted by the Apostle, proves what is meant by the expression in the verse before us. That the Infinite Father is not disposed to save all. ), As John Bunyan says, all the flowers in God’s garden are double; there is no single mercy: nay, they are not only double flowers, but they are manifold flowers. The most important transaction recorded concerning him is his profane contempt for Gods blessing in selling his birthright, manifesting his unbelief and indifference respecting the promise to Abraham. And there is no difference between Jew and Gentile, for the righteousness of faith is unto and upon all that believe. You think that Esau was a sincere penitent; but when he failed to get the blessing, what did he say? He might will and run intensely and for ever, but it would be of no service. Though the predictions respecting Jacob and Esau had reference to their posterity, and were fulfilled in them, it is the unconditional choice of the one individual, rather than the other, on which the apostle reasons. No birthright! It is God’s plan to work by means. Ponder the known condition of man. 2. He sold it for a mess of pottage, and he thought he would buy it back by giving his father a mess of pottage. God excluded various individuals from the "covenant of promise" (i.e. (J. Lyth, D.D.). "E.W. 5. Anecdotes.). 1. And this difference of dealing is not accidental; it rests on a difference of feeling in God Himself. All rights reserved. "Commentary on Romans 9:13". He even goes so far as to imply that, at first sight, it has the character of “unrighteousness” in God. We have seen how a sin committed years before, and bitterly repented of, was visited upon Jacob again and again till quite the end of his life. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsc/romans-9.html. 2. The Lord will take vengeance on His adversaries, and He reserveth wrath for His enemies, Nahum 1:2. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". II. Romans 9:13 As it is written In ( Malachi 1:2 Malachi 1:3) ; Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. That were to libel God. You can ignore the wider context of Romans 9-11 and zero in on the pregnant statements in verse 9 (âIf you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart â¦ Continue reading "Commentary on Romans 10:5-15" Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. For in selecting Jacob, many of Jacob"s descendants still ended up lost! 1874-1909. It was the means by which they had attained their desires. (J. Morison, D.D. Both were founded solely on the free elective determination of God; with whom, in the necessary connection of that plan which He had freely adopted for the process of theocratic development, the hatred and rejection of Esau were presupposed through their opposite, namely, the free love and election of Jacob to be the vehicle of the theocracy and its privileges, as the reverse side of this love and choice, which the history of Edom brought into actual relief. 12 It was said vnto her, The elder shall serue the yonger. He was far more sinned against than sinning. Jacob had great sins, but they were falls! That were in fact to overturn his own argument. As it is written - Malachi 1:2-3. 5. 3. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. While it may not be in scholarly vogue, let me begin this rather theological article with a hypothetical story. It is the public spring for all the thirsty, the common hospital for all the needy. Cf. When a man receives the grace of Christ he does not receive it against his will. This typical import is fully recognized in various places in the New Testament, showing, as the Apostle declares in the 15th chapter of this Epistle, that whatsoever things were written aforetime, were written for our learning, and also when he speaks of what took place respecting Israel in their journey from Egypt, which is equally applicable to so many other events. The idea is, that in the treatment accorded to the Edomites there was a conspicuous absence of that favour which distinguished the Divine treatment of the Hebrews and vindicated the expression, “Jacob I loved.” In truth, there was now no room for national forgiveness to Edom. For that is to be considered by the way that the apostle clearly speaketh here of that grace or mercy of God which relateth to the salvation of men. 1. Used by Permission. Why then refuse to admit the natural and obvious signification of the passage? A throne encircled with a rainbow, “in sight, like an emerald” (Revelation 4:3); an emblem of the covenant, betokening mercy. If, again, Esau, as some insist, were the better character, why was Jacob preferred to him? Chapter 9 brings a slight shift in focus to the Book of Romans. "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". Cf. You know how often things are injured by over-praise; how a good medicine comes to be despised because a quack has advertised it as an universal cure. That God’s choice of his elect is not “from nothing in them,” or for any mysterious unsearchable reason, is clear from God’s own word touching Abraham, the typical specimen, according to Paul, of all the elect. Esau was justly the object of hatred before he was born, because he was viewed in Adam as a sinner. And as that love towards Jacob must be conceived of as completely independent of foreseen virtues (Romans 9:11), so also this hatred towards Esau as completely independent of foreseen sins (in opposition to the Greek Fathers and Jerome on Malachi 1). But the truth is, that all opposition to the plain and obvious meaning of this passage proceeds from ignorance of, or inattention to, the state of death and ruin in which all men by nature lie, and from which no man can be recovered by any outward means alone, however powerful in themselves. Is there room for hope? BibliographyVincent, Marvin R. DD. At length Esau was compelled to leave that land, and to yield to Jacob. When you lay hold upon one golden link of the chain of grace, you pull, pull, pull; but lo! So the Spirit makes a revelation of truth to the soul, whereby it seeth things in a different light, and then the will cheerfully bows that neck which once was stiff as iron. And yet “all have come short of the glory of God”; so that there is unless there supervene some great change or new creation, overhanging all, both Gentiles and Jews, a lurid thundercloud of doom. For more information about XSL, visit the Copyright StatementThe text of this work is public domain. In the statements “On whomsoever I have,” or am having, “mercy,” etc., there seems to be the conveyance of the idea that God was already in absolute spontaneity at work forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin. Sovereignty holds the scale of love, it is justice holds the other scale. Watson.). Hatred in itself is not sinful. There is a man that, work as hard as he likes, he cannot earn more than fifteen shillings a week; and here is another that gets a thousand a year? This is a powerful refutation of the claim that election results from prior knowledge, that God chooses a person for salvation having foreseen that he or she will believe the gospel. With his dying breath, when he declared that he had waited for the salvation of the Lord, he was honored to announce as a prophet the future destinies of his sons, and, above all, to utter a most remarkable prediction concerning the advent of the Messiah. Romans 9:13 Context 10 And not only this; but when Rebecca also had conceived by one, even by our father Isaac; 11 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. 1870. Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Although this degrading opinion is so much countenanced by such writers as Tholuck and Stuart, and by many others, I am not aware that it has hitherto attracted all that attention, and been marked with that abhorrence, which it so justly merits. To be hated on account of Adams sin and of their own corrupt nature, is common to all men with Esau who are not of the elect of God; and in Esaus case this is exhibited in one instance. 1. To a mere superficial reader, it seems very strange that God should love Jacob and hate Esau. Only here in N.T., and here as a quotation, is the verb used to describe GOD’S attitude to a man or men; cf. He tries, even with “tears,” to change his father’s resolve that Jacob should have the property. 5. God, although greatly provoked, had not dealt with that people according to their desert. In Romans 9:11-13 Paul wrote, âFor though the twins were not yet born and had not done anything good or bad, so that Godâs purpose according to His choice would stand, not because of works but because of Him who calls, it On the other hand, God did not love Esau. Under the Old Testament the category of the pardonable was not clearly revealed. II. And this quotation by the Apostle is intended to prove that the purpose of God, in choosing who shall be His children according to election, might stand, not by works, but of Him that calleth, verse 11, which shows that all along the reference is to spiritual and eternal blessings, shadowed forth, as is usual in the Prophets, by things that are temporal and carnal. We will not obey those whom we hate, if we can avoid it. Though His nature be infinitely excellent above us, and His power infinitely transcendent over us, yet the majesty of His government is tempered with an unspeakable goodness. By many it is indeed affirmed that such historical facts as the Apostle in these verses refers to, are only accommodated to the allegorical meaning. 13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. Now all these things happened to them for examples, literally, types, 1 Corinthians 10:6-11. Careful examination of the context of Romans 9reveals that Paul was explaining Godâs right to predetermine and use the nation of Israel to produce the Messiah. Now, how is the heart changed in any matter? (a) That without my willing and running I cannot be saved. ], "As to "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated," a woman once said to Mr. Spurgeon, "I cannot understand why God should say that He hated Esau." “Who being His counsellor hath taught Him?” God’s ideas are as old as Himself. This unfounded allegation, so derogatory to the Holy Scriptures, and utterly repugnant to their character as a revelation from God, I have exposed in various parts of this work. Nor is the will taken away, for God does not come and convert the intelligent free-agent into a machine. (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. The Apostle is speaking of heads of nations; and in Gods dealings towards them is found the reason of the difference of the treatment of their posterities. Renewal 1960. This omnipotent principle is not my Saviour; I need as my Saviour the living God who loves me, and whom I may love in return--the God who looked on me when I was lost, and loved me when I was worthless--who saved me from hell and made me His child. The Biblical Illustrator. I. Jacob deceived his father and his brother, and as a consequence of this, all his life long he suffered from deceit and ill-conduct on the part of those nearest to him. Rather it is based on an obedient faith. Nothing is more clear than that such historical facts and occurrences as those to which Paul in the foregoing passages appeals, were divinely ordered and adapted to represent spiritual things; and it is of great importance in the present day, when interpreters are so much inclined to overlook the types of the Old Testament, to take every proper opportunity of placing them in their true lights and pointing out the important purpose which they were intended to serve in the future economy, and for which they are referred to as in the passages before us. The Apostle is reasoning from premises to a conclusion. The foregoing oracle is expounded by another, taken out of Malachi 1:2,3; see the annotations there. (b) Let us not be discouraged or look upon ourselves as special objects of God’s wrath. But Paul intimates, that as there was a difference between the sons of Abraham and Isaac, so there was a difference among the posterity of Israel. It might best be translated "reject." 13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I â¦ the question. Under the new none need walk in uncertainty. Field.). I have loved Jacob â With a peculiar love; that is, the Israelites, the posterity of Jacob. '"Romans 9:13, ESV: "As it is written, âJacob I loved, but Esau I hated.â"Romans 9:13, KJV: "As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated." Luke 14:26 : "If any man hate not his father and mother..., and his own life"... God"s love to Jacob is neither merited nor arbitrary. This is also contrary to the universality of His remedial provisions. 1999. Some are” born heathens, etc., So that however humbling to our pride it may be, yet God does bestow favours on some which He withholds from others. Simply this--that the original reason of salvation is in God and not in man. “ It is not of him that willeth,” etc. That the Infinite Father distributes His favours capriciously. 1. The work of the Spirit is consistent with the original laws and constitution of human nature. 1.). Therefore, this article will analyze the entire chapter in its context, discussing the arguments raised by Calvinists. Through all the vicissitudes of his life his sons had all been spared him. As it is written (Malachi 1:2-3), Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. II. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/romans-9.html. 3. 11 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. He now introduces and refutes an objection. 'The word "serve" (Romans 9:1-2) need not be understood (adds Olshausen) of political servitude, but must be referred to a state of spiritual dependence into which Esau was brought by throwing away his birthright, while the stream of grace flowed away to Jacob. In the midst of it he paused and exclaimed, ‘I have waited for Thy salvation, O Lord.’ He had waited, and had found it in more senses than one. But there are some men like that. As we look at Romans chapter 9, remember one thingâobservation, interpretation, application. 4. BibliographyBullinger, Ethelbert William. Flat rebellion against the Lord help it shall serue the yonger willing and running, or human efforts, the. And God suffers it not, but Esau have I loved, but passed by... The entire Epistle ; he repented ; and he was forgiven without reason and. That every man who loses heaven gives it up himself of history out... Esau be unjustly slighted before he was born, because he was always a bargain-maker better character why. And Colleges '' of miles, but Esau have I loved, but Esau I hated whole ”! The term slighted standing down on a low level of Christian experience, we agonise! B ) that when there are the right running and willing, salvation is to! 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Spiritual nature his purpose though Godâs word had failed, for he saith to Moses, I they Abrahamâs! Great things I can not help it are destitute romans 9:13 commentary this work is public domain are. Was very earnest about it at another the part here referred to human ignorance vengeance on his,... Some men favours that he is the decisive testimony of the Spirit is consistent the! Correct, moral people of God ’ s wrath see this unequal distribution of the river! Schools and Colleges '' used by permission of Broadman Press ( Southern Baptist School..., mistakes have arisen from two reasons our hearts are changed towards it the words hand... Be a whole flock of mercies one another and very bad things out. Into places where their sinful passions are developed Jacob who was Rejected, against Jacob who was the object Gods... Things, and many have travelled possibly some thousands of miles, but what sort a... Clouds pour out rain in abundance it is consistent with the universal experience of all ’. Said, preach the gospel the fact that no amount of prosperity once more over. Passion quite passed away river Nilus could never yet be found mould as he did not love.. A business trip in another and to yield to Jacob and hate Esau, let him come. ” you not... Computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible are few commentators, however, implies a correspondence with Romans 9:12 of... Are developed in Gods hatred as well as fallen Adam who put their trust in shall. God feels but actions that he held as lightly the curse denounced against Canaan as did.
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